X ≡ xylose; F ≡ furfural; Xu ≡ xylulose; DP1, DP2, and DP3 ≡ degradation products. The org.

EM VIRTUDE DO ARQUIVAMENTO PUBLICADO NA RPI 2384 DE 13-09-2016 E CONSIDERANDO AUSENCIA DE MANIFESTACAO DENTRO DOS PRAZOS LEGAIS, INFORMO QUE CABE SER MANTIDO O ARQUIVAMENTO DO PEDIDO DE PATENTE, CONFORME O DISPOSTO NO ARTIGO 12, DA RESOLUCAO 113/2013. Biphasic acid dehydration of C5 carbohydrates (primarily xylose) in aqueous streams from Examples 1 and 2 below was carried out in a 500 ml zipperclave reactor (Autoclave Engineers, Inc.) and/or a 300 ml Parr autoclave.

For reasons strictly of economic viability, it is preferable that the invention is practiced using a continuous-flow system at steady-state equilibrium. In one advantage of the process in contrast with the dilute acids pretreatment reactions where residual acid is left in the reaction mixture (<1% wt. Publication Nos. Both the reactor wall and the reactor lid were heated to avoid cold surfaces and reflux of the vapors. Biotechnol. Kinetic model A; thermodynamic model NRTL ASPEN. Such processes are described in U.S. These are listed in. barriers and to liberate xylose from the confines of acid-resistant layer of lignin has been emphasized. [See, for example, Lim Koon Ong, “Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Fuel Ethanol—A Brief Review,” The Planter, Vol.

The fermentation may also be performed with recombinant yeast engineered to ferment both hexose and pentose sugars to ethanol. The cellulase enzyme dosage is chosen to convert the cellulose of the pretreated feedstock to glucose. The various prodn. [Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 28/29, pp.

These higher acid concentration approaches provide higher yields of sugars, but due to economic and environmental reasons the acids must be recovered. With this combined catalyst functionalities, a much higher yield (76%) to furfural can be obtained in a biphasic system at low temps. Experimental data and model predictions of the amounts of furfural in reactor and condensate for various thermodynamic models. Therefore, the formation of these acids is reversible in that as the temperature is raised, the sulfur dioxide and/or aldehyde and/or ketone can be flashed from the mixture and condensed or absorbed elsewhere in order to be recycled. In addition, the use of extraction methods within the process allows for recovery of the desired product (furfural) without having to distill or strip much water with it (as azeotrope). To this was added approximately 2600 grams (runs 1-3) and 2200 g (runs 4-6) of 5% wt.

Recombinant yeasts that can ferment one or both of the pentose sugars xylose and arabinose to ethanol are described in U.S. Pat.

Depending upon the pH or water content of aqueous stream, acid catalyst for the dehydration step (dehydration acid catalyst) may optionally be added prior to its addition to the hydrolysis reaction or acid dehydration step in order to maintain overall reaction pH and reaction kinetics. In the presence of 5% Pt/C catalyst, 76.50 mol% yield of cyclopentanone (81.32 mol% comprehensive yield of cyclopentanone and cyclopentanol) is obtained after 30 min of reaction at 160° and a hydrogen pressure of 80 bar.

1 schematically illustrates a block flow diagram of an embodiment of the furfural production process of the invention from biomass.

Generally, a temperature of about 15° C. to about 100° C., about 20° C. to about 85° C., about 30° C. to about 70° C. preferably or any temperature there between, is suitable for most cellulase enzymes. Agirrezabal-Telleria, I.; Gandarias, I.; Arias, P. L. Among the furan-based compds., furfural (FUR) shows interesting properties as building-block or industrial solvent. 87). As only the α-hydroxysulfonic acid is reversible to volatile components, following Le Chatelier's principle, all of the alpha-hydroxysulfonic acid can be recovered and the salt of the mineral acid is formed. The organic phase is separated from the aqueous phase, and thus obtained aqueous recycle stream 318 may be fed directly back into the process loop to the hydrolysis reaction step. That is, the theoretical furfural yield is about 30 to 40%, the residence time in the reactor is significant long as 4.5 to 5.5 hours, water of 50 MT per 1 MT of furfural is consumed, and a significant amount of harmful substance is included in effluents. Ershova, O.; Kanervo, J.; Hellsten, S.; Sixta, H. An exptl. The authors declare no competing financial interest. 3,549,319). By the term “β-glucosidase”, it is meant any enzyme that hydrolyzes the glucose dimer, cellobiose, to glucose. This review presents an overview of the initial targeted chem. Sus. 7,781,191 which disclosures are hereby incorporated by reference.

We have found that by titrating the α-hydroxysulfonic acid salt with strong acid and then reverting the α-hydroxysulfonic acid as its primary components, the acid components can be recovered virtually quantitatively providing for a cost reduction in the reversible acid pretreatment process. We have found that by the addition of small amounts of mineral acid or organic acid to the α-hydroxysulfonic acids process produces furfural in high yield. Optionally, stream 216 may also be subjected to a flash, distillation or multi-effect evaporator to increase the C5-carbohydrate concentration. This may improve overall furfural yield. Process for preparing furfural from biomass, One-step production of furfural from biomass, lignin-based solvents and methods for preparing the same, A kind of method and application producing high activity lignin and by-product furfural, A kind of method of xylan synthesis furfural, Production of furfural from pentose liquors, Manufacture of 5-hydroxymethyl 2-furfural, Heterocyclic compounds produced from biomass, Heterocyclic compounds extracted by a hydrocarbon, Catalytic process for producing furan derivatives from carbohydrates in a biphasic reactor, Production of liquid alkanes in the jet fuel range (C8-C15) from biomass-derived carbohydrates, Chemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals, Effects of γ-valerolactone in hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass to monosaccharides. The parameters which can be employed to control the conditions of the pretreatment are time, temperature, and acid loading. pentanol, tertbutyl alcohol, etc. The apparent activation energy for xylose dehydration is higher than the apparent activation energy for the degrdn. The recovered acids (whether in acid form or component form) are recycled via stream 118 to the hydrolysis reaction system 114. 2 shows another embodiment of the present invention for the improved production of furfural from biomass. If high enough levels of acid are employed, temperatures can be reduced below the point at which sugar degradation or lignin deposition are problematic; this in turn is made possible through the use of reversible α-hydroxysulfonic acids. Since biomass is always accompanied by caustic inorganic materials, we have found that the formation of the anion salt of α-hydroxysulfonic acid represent the largest “loss” of the α-hydroxysulfonic acid in the potential reversible acid pretreatment process.

In a typical run, 100 g of 5 wt % xylose solution (which can be assumed to be produced via digestion runs) was prepared along with various acid concentration as shown in the FIG. The ability to reverse and recycle these acids also allows the use of higher concentrations than would otherwise be economically or environmentally practical. Conditions: T = 168 °C, p = 10 bar, Cxylin = 1 wt %, CH2SO4 = 0.5 wt %. These vessels may have any design capable of carrying out a hydrolysis reaction.

A number of pretreatment methods, such as described by Mosier, et al. data collected in this study. No. Aside from increasing performance, our results indicate that the combined Lewis and Bronsted acids change the pathway for the conversion of xylose to furfural compared to carrying out the reaction in Bronsted acids alone. No. The reactor was brought to 120° C. in about 10 minutes and held for 1 hour. A review. The acid was not recycled for this study and was made up from the stock solution for each run. quotients obtained from the measured potentials were combined with published values of the corresponding equil. The invention relates to a process for preparing furfural from biomass, and more specifically to a treatment of biomass and production of furfural from materials containing polysaccharides and/or lignocelluloses.


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