January 18: Karantina Massacre: Right-wing Christian forces like the Guardians of the Cedars, the Phalangist and the Tigers Militia took control of the Karantina district. However estimates of the Phalange's membership by Yezid Sayigh and other academic sources put them at a few thousand.

The Progressive Socialist Party (or PSP) (Arabic: الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki) is a political party in Lebanon.

On 6 December 1975, a day later known as Black Saturday, the killings of four Phalange members led Phalange to quickly and temporarily set up roadblocks throughout Beirut at which identification cards were inspected for religious affiliation. The Lebanese Civil War took place from 1975 to 1990 and claimed the lives of some 200,000 people, which left Lebanon in ruins. Many of the people there migrated to the suburbs of Beirut, which are known as "poverty belts". Syria opposes the agreement, which was never ratified by the Lebanese parliament and canceled in 1987. In the months that followed, the general destruction of the central market area of Beirut was marked by the emergence of a “green line” between Muslim West Beirut and Christian East Beirut, which persisted until the end of the civil war in 1990, with each side under the control of its respective militias. The Phalangist-dominated LF fractured into various contending parties that were in turn challenged by the militias of the Franjieh and Chamoun families in the north and south of the country, respectively. Mahsum Korkmaz was the commander of all PKK forces in Lebanon. During the 1960s Lebanon was relatively calm, but this would soon change.

The National Assembly expanded to 128 seats and was for the first time divided equally between Christians and Muslims. Peacekeepers at War: Beirut 1983—The Marine Commander Tells His Story. ); He is replaced by Selim el Hoss. Fatah was instrumental in splitting the DF from the PFLP in the early days of the PFLPs formation so as to diminish the appeal and competition the PFLP posed to Fatah. Although occasional communal violence was already occurring, many date the beginning of the war to April 13, 1975, when the Phalangists attacked a bus taking Palestinians to a refugee camp at Tall al-Zaʿtar. January 20: Damour Massacre: Palestinian guerrillas and the National Movement attacked and destroyed the Christian populated town of Damour south of Beirut. AMAL continues its attacks on Palestinian camps. As the war dragged on, the militias deteriorated ever further into mafia-style organizations with many commanders turning to crime as their main occupation rather than fighting. Click here to search for documents and articles on selected topics from War & Postwar times.

In 1975 civil war broke out, leading to the eventual division of the country between the Palestinian, Muslim, and leftist Lebanese National Movement (LNM) and the Christian and rightist Lebanese Front (LF). The LNM dissolved after the Israeli invasion of 1982 and was replaced by the Lebanese National Resistance Front, known as Jammoul in Arabic. It revolved around some of the issues that dominated regional politics in the Middle East in the latter part of the 20th century, including the Palestine-Israel conflict, Cold War competition, Arab nationalism and political Islam. A commitment was made for the gradual elimination of confessionalism, and Lebanese independence was affirmed with a call for an end to foreign occupation in the south.

The small Druze sect, strategically and dangerously seated on the Chouf in central Lebanon, had no natural allies, and so were compelled to put much effort into building alliances. Throughout the war’s duration, more than 100,000 people had been killed, nearly 1,000,000 displaced, and several billion dollars’ worth of damage to property and infrastructure sustained. March 17-19: Massacres against Christian civilians in the Chouf villlages of Barouk, Botmeh, Kfarnabrakh, Mazraat el-Chouf, Maasser el-Chouf, Machghara and Brih, in reaction to the assissination of Joumblatt. The power of the traditionally Maronite president was reduced in relation to those of the Sunni prime minister and the Shiʿi speaker of the National Assembly, and the division of parliamentary seats, cabinet posts, and senior administrative positions was adjusted to represent an equal ratio of Christian and Muslim officials. Their initial goal was to be a bulwark against PLO raids and attacks into the Galilee, although they later focussed on fighting Hezbollah. The Phalangist forces launched a surprise attack on the Tigers, a 500-man militia that was the armed force of the National Liberal Party of ex-Lebanese President Camille Chamoun. Druze: Druze militia (D.); Meanwhile, in the north, the Marada Brigades served as the private militia of the Franjieh family and Zgharta, which became allied with Syria after breaking with the Lebanese Front in 1978. The resulting conflict led to the establishment of the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL)—a peacekeeping force meant to secure Israeli withdrawal and support the return of Lebanese authority in the south—as well as to the creation of the South Lebanese Army (SLA)—a militia led by Saʿd Haddad and armed and financed by Israel to function as a proxy militia under Lebanese Christian command. On 13 October, Syria launched a major operation involving its army, air force (for the first time since Zahle's siege in 1981) and Lebanese allies (mainly the Lebanese Army led by General Émile Lahoud) against Aoun's stronghold around the presidential palace, where hundreds of Aoun supporters were killed. This led to a meeting of Lebanese parliamentarians in Ta'if, Saudi Arabia, where they agreed to the national reconciliation accord in October.

Support was greatly met by both military training and funding support. As such it is only possible to give an approximate guide on these maps, showing only the major factions.

October 23, 1983: U.S. Marines barracks near Beirut International Airport, on the south side of the city, are attacked by a suicide bomber in a truck, killing 241 Marines. June 10: The Israeli army finishes withdrawing out of most of Lebanon, but keeps  a “security zone"  patrolled by the South Lebanon Army and Israeli soldiers. There has been some speculation that Saad's attempts to narrow the differences between the fishermen and the consortium, and his acceptance of a place on the board made him a target of attack by the conspirator who sought a full conflagration around the small protest.

March 16: Assassination of Kamal Joumblatt, leader of the National Movement. Franjieh, a traditional Maronite clan leader from the Zghartā region of northern…, Palestinian guerrilla activity against Israel in 1975 was largely confined to the southern Lebanese border area, where it provoked heavy Israeli attacks from air, land, and sea against Palestinian refugee camps that the Israelis alleged were being used as guerrilla bases.…, …outbreak of an extremely damaging civil war in 1975 and a breakdown of the governmental system. However, the PLO and Communists returned at night, when low visibility made Israeli artillery far less effective. It was active in North Lebanon (Koura and Akkar), West Beirut (around Hamra Street), in Mount Lebanon (High Metn, Baabda, Aley and Chouf), in South Lebanon (Zahrani, Nabatieh, Marjayoun and Hasbaya) and the Beqqa Valley (Baalbeck, Hermel and Rashaya). Lebanon thus had no president but two prime ministers, and two separate governments emerged in competition for legitimacy. Furthermore many people did not recognize militia's tax-raising authority, and viewed all militia money-raising activities as mafia-style extortion and theft. Approximately 900,000 people, representing one-fifth of the pre-war population, were displaced from their homes. However many militia fighters would use taxes/customs as a pretext to extort money. After discussions, the league legitimized the invasion by attaching a small number of other Arab peacekeeping forces to the Syrian force to form the Arab Deterrent Force (ADF).


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