Fragrance mix I, Myroxylon pereirae and colophonium are tested with TRUE Test; all other fragrance allergens are tested in petrolatum in Van der Bend chambers. The authors declare no potential conflict of interests. Occupational dermatitis and primary site of dermatitis were not significant risk factors for any of the groups. d-Limonene is a monocyclic terpene with insecticidal properties, especially from the vapor, which primarily acts as a desiccant. In the majority of patients (15/21, 71.4%), the responsible product types were rinse‐off products such as soap and shampoo, followed by leave‐on products such as cosmetics and creams (9/21, 42.9%). 2007;157:295‐300. In conclusion, high prevalences of contact allergy to hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool have once again been observed, supporting the proposed inclusion in the EBS. Most terpenes are oily liquids at room temperature, except camphene which is a … The RI and PR for hydroperoxides of limonene were −0.32 (95%CI: −0.41 to −0.24) and 85.7% (95%CI: 77.9%‐93.5%), respectively, and the RI and PR for hydroperoxides of linalool were − 0.34 (95%CI: −0.42 to −0.26) and 88.5% (95%CI: 79.2%‐94.9%), respectively. Reactions were considered to be doubtful if erythema and infiltration did not cover the whole test area. A total of 141 doubtful (?+) reactions (17.2%, 95%CI: 14.6%‐19.7%) and 7 irritant reactions (0.9%, 95%CI: 0.2%‐1.5%) to hydroperoxides of limonene were observed, and 180 doubtful reactions (21.9% 95%CI: 19.1%‐24.8%) and 16 irritant reactions (1.9%, 95%CI: 1.1%‐2.8%) to hydroperoxides of linalool were observed. As a family we hugely appreciate it.

( Log Out /  Learn about our remote access options, Department of Dermatology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

When group B (positive reactions to hydroperoxides of limonene) was compared with group C (positive reactions to hydroperoxides of linalool), the main difference was that age ≥40 years was a risk factor for patients in group C (OR 2.28, 95%CI: 1.43‐3.65), but not significantly so in group B (OR 1.39, 95%CI: 0.86‐2.26). ( Log Out /  But after that initial deer-in-the-headlights phase it does become a way of life and ultimately you get used to it. Now, after all of this the doctors aren’t even sure that this allergy has anything to do with her skin issues. If this was the case, it might be prudent to test both allergens in a lower concentration. There was a round of blood tests followed by a week of patch tests. Our observation that the majority of positive reactions to either hydroperoxides of limonene or hydroperoxides of linalool were weak positive (+) is in line with the literature.7, 16-18. Table S1 Overview of all fragrance allergens (and colophonium) patch tested in each consecutive patient at our patch test clinic. This Sweet Water Foaming Hand Wash is suitable. Most people are very accommodating, checking packet ingredients carefully and ensuring she can eat without any worry. 2002;47:161‐164. On the basis of our results, a low RI (<0) and a high PR (>80%) for both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool were calculated, indicative of a problematic patch test concentration.13, 14 Considering that the low RIs for both allergens are mostly caused by a high number of doubtful reactions, and only a small number of irritant reactions, a reasonable assumption would be that patch testing with higher concentrations might improve the diagnostic performance. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. 1 d-Limonene is toxic to all life stages of the flea with the order of sensitivity from most to least being eggs, adults, larvae, and pupae.

For all positive patch test reactions, the current and/or past clinical relevance was determined based on patient history and exposure, with possible outcomes being unlikely/not, possible, probable, and certain. Future studies should be performed to investigate the ideal patch test concentrations for hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool. Both enantiomeric forms are found in nature: (S)-linalool is found, for example, as a major constituent of the essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), cymbopogon (Cymbopogon martini var. just found out I have an allergy for limonene and linalool and I have found this article very useful as an intro to the subject rather than all the tech stuff about it, so thank you.

Contact Dermatitis. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool, to report clinical relevance, and to investigate patient demographics. Eventually we did happen upon.

Notwithstanding these limitations, almost 20% of the reactions were evaluated as being of “certain” clinical relevance, and at least another 20% were of “probable” clinical relevance. On analysis of group A, patients who were allergic to both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool more frequently reacted positively to additional fragrance allergens and/or colophonium (63.2%, 95%CI: 47.9%‐78.5%) than patients who were allergic to hydroperoxides of limonene (33.3%, 95%CI: 18.5%‐48.1%) and significantly more frequently than patients who were allergic to hydroperoxides of linalool alone (27.6%, 95%CI: 16.1%‐39.1%). The types of product for which exposure caused ACD in patients with a contact allergy to hydroperoxides of limonene and/or hydroperoxides of linalool of certain clinical relevance are presented. Washing up liquid, toothpaste, shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, laundry detergent/pods, stain remover, fabric … Contact Dermatitis. The distribution of the strength of positive patch test reactions to the hydroperoxides are presented for different groups of patients: patients with positive reactions to either hydroperoxides of limonene or hydroperoxides of linalool but not to any other fragrance; patients with positive reactions to both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool but not to any other fragrance; patients with positive reactions to hydroperoxides of limonene or hydroperoxides of linalool and to ≥1 other fragrances; and patients with positive reactions to both hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool and to ≥1 other fragrances. Patch testing with purified and oxidized citronellol. As a result you pay a bit more but they really know their stuff and have a huge range. Turns out these two ingredients appear in mostly everything in my house, or at least it feels that way. Abbreviations: M, male; O, occupational dermatitis; A, a (history of) atopic dermatitis; H, hand as the primary site of dermatitis; L, leg as the primary site of dermatitis; F, face as the primary site of dermatitis; A, age >40 years. In other words, groups B‐D are subsets of group A. and hydroperoxides of linalool 1.0% pet. Investigation of the skin sensitizing activity of linalool. A regression analysis was performed for each of these groups (except for group F, all members of which were not allergic to a fragrance); the results are shown in Table 5. One floral and the other from the zest, peel or rind of citrus fruits. ECOS, formerly named “Earth Friendly Products”, have a fragrance free line in their range. Before I jump into the details, let me say that I’ve used and recommended lavender oil for … A bargain at £2.50 a bottle! Most reactions were considered to be possibly or probably clinically relevant (66.3% and 68.8%, respectively), and a small proportion were deemed to be of certain clinical relevance (18.2% and 19.8%, respectively). Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article. An additional concern regarding testing at higher concentrations is the higher risk of active sensitization, as studies have shown that an irritant effect can increase this risk.19 Christensson et al patch tested dermatitis patients and healthy controls with sequentially diluted concentrations of oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool; for both, an increasing concentration led to more irritant reactions, although this effect was stronger for oxidized limonene than for oxidized linalool.20 The highest tested concentration of oxidized linalool (20%, most likely containing 3.34% hydroperoxides of linalool, on the basis of the presence of 1.0% hydroperoxides of linalool in 6.0% oxidized linalool)17 showed a mean irritation score of 1.63 points, and a maximum of 4 points, based on a scoring system ranging from 0 to 9 developed by Basketter et al,21 in which an irritant reaction would be noted from 2 to 3 points.20 Studies have been performed with lower patch test concentrations of hydroperoxides of limonene (0.1% and 0.2%) and hydroperoxides of linalool (0.25% and 0.5%), and have concluded that the current patch test concentrations are preferred over lower concentrations, as too many positive reactions might be missed.8, 9 The observed high PR further supports the argument that the current patch test concentrations might be too low. For the present analysis, the maximum patch test reactions of these 2 readings were aggregated as the patch test outcome. Statistical analyses were performed according to pertinent guidelines.12 Prevalences are provided in percentages together with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pleased with it. Contact Allergy—Emerging Allergens and Public Health Impact. Only 1 extreme (+++) positive reaction to hydroperoxides of linalool was observed.

When specific contact allergies are suspected, additional series are patch tested. The only thing I would say is that it is comparatively quite expensive.

The lower prevalence of atopic dermatitis in this patient group might explain the low number of irritant reactions to the hydroperoxides, as (a history of) atopic dermatitis is associated with increased susceptibility to irritants.25 A recent study, however, did not find any differences in the prevalences of atopic dermatitis between patients with positive reactions to hydroperoxides of limonene and/or hydroperoxides of linalool, and patients with irritant reactions.9 A strength of the current investigation is that D7 readings were performed, as, without this late reading, approximately 8% and 4% of positive reactions to hydroperoxides of limonene and hydroperoxides of linalool, respectively, would have been missed.


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