It ruled much of Europe and Anatolia for a remarkable eleven hundred years. All the main Mediterranean islands were also now under the Byzantine control.

The Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων) is a country situated between the Balkans and Asia Minor. In the period after the 12th century, the empire comprised little more than Constantinople and a few other outposts. Byzantine art flourished, and brilliant mosaics graced the interiors of the many new churches. [39] Phocas, an unpopular ruler who is invariably described in Byzantine sources as a "tyrant", was the target of a number of senate-led plots.

Feudalism is characterized and, indeed, defined as the decline of central governmental power as power is handed over to private, local, large landholders. This served as a precedent for Wolf who was motivated, at least partly, to re-interpret Roman history in different terms. In a nutshell, the Byzantine Empire may best be described as possessing Roman law and government, Christian religion, and Greek culture and language, although Latin was used frequently until at least the 7th century and used in some legal documents as late as the 12th-century. In 638 the new doctrine was posted in the narthex of Hagia Sophia as part of a text called the Ekthesis, which also forbade further discussion of the issue. Irene made determined efforts to stamp out iconoclasm everywhere in the Empire including within the ranks of the army. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia as a homeland.

This is a website with supplementary material for my book A Short History of the Byzantine Empire, published by I.

tunicas, dalmaticas, stolas and cloaks. [77] Thus, the destruction of the golden Christ over the Chalke Gates in 726 AD marks the beginning of the period of time in Byzantine history that is known as the "first iconoclast period." First Isaurian emperor was Tarasicodissa, who was married by Leo to his daughter Ariadne (466) and ruled as Zeno I after the death of Leo I's son, Leo II (autumn of 474).

Bury asserts that "the foundation of Constantinople [...] inaugurated a permanent division between the Eastern and Western, the Greek and the Latin, halves of the Empire—a division to which events had already pointed—and affected decisively the whole subsequent history of Europe. Slovenians and Turks) were influenced by the Vlachs from the early medieval times. After the initial conflict, Andronikos III dethroned his grandfather and became sole emperor. [95] Most of the Macedonian emperors (867–1056 AD) were opposed to the interests of the aristocracy. Frederick Barbarossa attempted to conquer the empire during the Third Crusade, but it was the Fourth Crusade that had the most devastating effect on the empire. [111], Bulgarian resistance revived under the leadership of the Cometopuli dynasty, but the new emperor Basil II (reigned 976–1025 AD) made the submission of the Bulgarians his primary goal.

The traditional struggle with the See of Rome continued through the Macedonian period, spurred by the question of religious supremacy over the newly Christianised state of Bulgaria.

[148] Despite the defeat at Myriokephalon, the policies of Alexios, John and Manuel resulted in vast territorial gains, increased frontier stability in Asia Minor, and secured the stabilization of the empire's European frontiers. [182], Following the death of Andronikos III in 1341 another civil war broke out, lasting until 1347. The end of the Western Empire is sometimes dated to 476, early in Zeno's reign, when the Germanic Roman general Odoacer deposed the titular Western Emperor Romulus Augustulus, but declined to replace him with another puppet.

[156] Handsome and eloquent, Andronikos was at the same time known for his licentious exploits. Archaeological evidence from both Europe and Asia Minor shows a considerable increase in the size of urban settlements, together with a notable upsurge in new towns. Reggio, the capital of the tagma of Calabria, was captured by Robert Guiscard in 1060.

The Empire of Nicaea, founded by the Laskarid dynasty, managed to reclaim Constantinople from the Latins in 1261 and defeat Epirus. Nevertheless, this was not intended in a demeaning manner since he ascribed his changes to historiography and not history itself.

The conquests in West meant the other parts of the Empire were left almost unguarded, although Justinian was a great builder of fortifications throughout all his reign and the Byzantine territories. The Byzantine Empire was one of the most impressive imperial adventures in history. [97] These favourable policies of the Macedonian emperors contributed to the increasing ability of the emperors to wage war against the Arabs. Adrianople was plundered again in 923, and a Bulgarian army laid siege to Constantinople in 924.

[175], The crusaders again took the city on 13 April 1204, and Constantinople was subjected to pillage and massacre by the rank and file for three days. To recover Italy, Zeno could only negotiate with the Ostrogoths of Theodoric, who had been settled in Moesia: he sent the barbarian king in Italy as magister militum per Italiam ("chief of staff for Italy"). In Constantinople astonishing flavor blends were commonplace. The latter in particular favoured culture at the court, and, with a careful financial policy, steadily increased the gold reserves of the Empire.

The city also lost the free grain shipments in 618, after Egypt fell first to the Persians and then to the Arabs, and public wheat distribution ceased. The astute and diplomatic eunuch Narses was chosen for the command.

The Turks, one of the deadliest enemies of future Byzantium, had appeared in Crimea, and in 577 a horde of some 100,000 Slavs had invaded Thrace and Illyricum. Dalmaticas and cloaks were of wool as well.

In 1054, relations between Greek-speaking Eastern and Latin-speaking Western traditions within the Christian Church reached a terminal crisis.

This epic victory restored the Danube frontier, which had not been held since the days of the emperor Heraclius.[93]. During a period of strife between Constantinople and Rome which ended in the East–West Schism of 1054, the Normans began to advance, slowly but steadily, into Byzantine Italy.

Thus, the images, or icons, were interfering with the true goal of worship. From 811 AD on this hope was finally given up. The essential line of a dalmatica is triangular, with narrowing sleeves or flaring sleeves. Early Byzantine missionary work spread Orthodox Christianity to various Slavic peoples, and it is still predominant among the Russians, Ukrainians, Serbians, Bulgarians, people of the Republic of Macedonia, as well as among the Greeks. Patronage for these individuals was once again the duty of military service to the Emperor. [169] Innocent, who was informed of the plan (his veto being disregarded), was reluctant to jeopardize the Crusade, and gave conditional absolution to the crusaders—not, however, to the Venetians.[167]. Culturally, there was considerable growth in education and learning.

To divide administrative responsibilities, Constantine replaced the single praetorian prefect, who had traditionally exercised both military and civil functions, with regional prefects enjoying civil authority alone. Constantinople was known for specialized food markets. In 730 AD, Leo III issued an edict which made iconoclasm official policy throughout the Empire.


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