During in vivo study, arsenic-induced toxicity can be shielded by the use of sinapic acid and is mainly attributed to its metal-chelating potential .
Moreover, three ester derivatives of sinapic acid, methyl sinapate, β-D-(3,4-disinapoyl)fructofuranosyl-α-D-(6-sinapoyl)glucopyranoside, and 1,2-disinapoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, have also shown comparable •OH scavenging activity . Moreover, peroxyl radicals produced through Cu+2-mediated oxidation of human LDL has been studied in vitro, and in terms of Trolox equivalent (TE) the following order has been observed with decreasing lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity: sinapic acid > caffeic acid > ferulic acid . Furthermore, an increased amount of sinapic acid is reported to produce less quantity of propanal (secondary oxidation product) at low tocopherol concentration and larger quantity at high levels. Moreover, another derivative syringaldehyde is also reported to show strong DPPH• scavenging activity [26, 57]. Comparison of Phenolic Acids and Flavan-3-ols During Wine Fermentation of Grapes with Different Harvest Times. 81202202]. Thus, sinapic acid may be employed as a protective agent in MI . We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. , Sinapine is an alkaloidal amine found in black mustard seeds.
Moreover, a promising peroxyl radical scavenging activity of syringaldehyde has been reported in crocin method, involving a competition between antioxidant and crocin to bind with the peroxyl radical; a similar antioxidant activity of syringaldehyde has been published in bulk oil and lecithin liposome .  It is a useful matrix for a wide variety of peptides and proteins. Those studies have been summarized in this brief review article so that the scientific community may pay more attention to the biological aspects of sinapic acid and its derivatives.
Furthermore, linoleic acid-based lipidic model was used and the diferential scanning calorimetric analysis of sinapic acid, its alkyl esters (methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl sinapates), and reference antioxidant (Trolox) was conducted to compare their peroxyl radical scavenging activity. Plasma-sinapic acid level has also been quantified (1.5 μg/mL) after intake of cranberry juice in human by using GC-MS . Nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2, and interleukin-1β are proinflammatory mediators and their expression by ROS and activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in macrophages cause inflammation . In addition, sinapic acid can be further studied for applications in diabetic states. The structural formulas of sinapic acid and its derivatives (syringaldehyde, sinapine, and 4-vinylsyringol). Aβ1−42 protein-induced effects were reported to be abolished by the use of sinapic acid, including elevated expression of iNOS, glial cells, and nitrotyrosine. These tests were employed to study the behavior of sinapic acid and it was found that it increases the time spent in open arms significantly and also increases percentage entry in open arms . However, the overproduction of ROS destroys this equilibrium resulting in oxidative stress which is responsible for various pathological conditions, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging [40–42]. It is a member of the phenylpropanoid family. Additionally, sinapic acid derivatives like sinapoyl glycosides are also reported for DPPH• scavenging activity [49, 50].
Few studies are available in the literature, which elaborate the neuroprotective function of sinapic acid and its derivatives. Sun, I. Girgensone, P. Leanderson, F. Petersson, and K. Borch, “Effects of antioxidant vitamin supplements on, J. Fang, T. Seki, T. Tsukamoto et al., “Protection from inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated carcinogenesis with 4-vinyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol (canolol) involves suppression of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines,”, X. Dong, Z. Li, W. Wang et al., “Protective effect of canolol from oxidative stress-induced cell damage in ARPE-19 cells via an ERK mediated antioxidative pathway,”, H. Kuwahara, T. Kariu, J. Fang, and H. Maeda, “Generation of drug-resistant mutants of Helicobacter pylori in the presence of peroxynitrite, a derivative of nitric oxide, at pathophysiological concentration,”, J. W. Jung, N. Y. Ahn, H. R. Oh et al., “Anxiolytic effects of the aqueous extract of, J. J. Lee, E. T. Hahm, B. I. Min, S. H. Han, J. J. Cho, and Y. W. Cho, “Roles of protein kinase A and C in the opioid potentiation of the GABAA response in rat periaqueductal gray neuron,”, M. Lader and S. Morton, “Benzodiazepine problems,”, M. M. Cowan, “Plant products as antimicrobial agents,”, S. Gibbons, “Plants as a source of bacterial resistance modulators and anti-infective agents,”, M. Saleem, M. Nazir, M. S. Ali et al., “Antimicrobial natural products: an update on future antibiotic drug candidates,”, H. Nowak, K. Kujawa, R. Zadernowski, B. Roczniak, and H. KozŁowska, “Antioxidative and bactericidal properties of phenolic compounds in rapeseeds,”, C. Kelly, O. Jones, C. Barnhart, and C. Lajoie, “Effect of furfural, vanillin and syringaldehyde on, J. S. Wilson, K. Ganesan, and M. Palanisamy, “Effect of sinapic acid on biochemical markers and histopathological studies in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetes in wistar rats,”, Y.-G. Cherng, C.-C. Tsai, H.-H. Chung, Y.-W. Lai, S.-C. Kuo, and J.-T. Cheng, “Antihyperglycemic action of sinapic acid in diabetic rats,”, J. Wang, H. Bo, X. Meng, Y. Wu, Y. Bao, and Y. Li, “A simple and fast experimental model of myocardial infarction in the mouse,”, S. J. Roy and P. S. M. Prince, “Protective effects of sinapic acid on cardiac hypertrophy, dyslipidaemia and altered electrocardiogram in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats,”, P. S. M. Prince, “A biochemical, electrocardiographic, electrophoretic, histopathological and in vitro study on the protective effects of (−)epicatechin in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats,”, S. J. Roy and S. M. P. Prince, “Protective effects of sinapic acid on lysosomal dysfunction in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats,”, X. Zeng, J. Zheng, C. Fu et al., “A newly synthesized sinapic acid derivative inhibits endothelial activation in vitro and in vivo,”, P. S. M. Prince, H. Priscilla, and P. T. Devika, “Gallic acid prevents lysosomal damage in isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats,”, M. M. Kannan and S. D. Quine, “Ellagic acid ameliorates isoproterenol induced oxidative stress: evidence from electrocardiological, biochemical and histological study,”, S.-Y.
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