Most known mimics are insects,[3] though many other examples including vertebrates are also known. Batesian mimicry is the resemblance of an edible and harmless species to some poisonous or otherwise non-edible species that signals its unsuitability to possible predators by aposematic colouring or by other conspicuous signs. In addition, one can find many novel mimicry types that an individual researcher or school has proposed and occasionally applied. [94], Many insects have filamentous "tails" at the ends of their wings and patterns of markings on the wings themselves. One form of such mimicry is where one part of an organism's body resembles another part. Such insects frequently are aposematically coloured and patterned. Both share the same color and have resemblance over the other. The signal receiver is also advantaged by this system, despite being deceived about species identity, as it avoids potentially harmful encounters. genital masculinisation in female spotted hyenas, Muller and Wrangham 2002). Historically, the oldest and best-known mimicry type is Batesian mimicry, named after the British entomologist Henry Walter Bates, who in his fieldwork in the Amazon River described the resemblance of many butterfly species from the families Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae a.o. [8] It is named after Russian botanist and geneticist Nikolai Vavilov. Some cases may belong to more than one class, e.g., automimicry and aggressive mimicry are not mutually exclusive, as one describes the species relationship between model and mimic, while the other describes the function for the mimic (obtaining food). [84], Inter-sexual mimicry occurs when individuals of one sex in a species mimic members of the opposite sex to facilitate sneak mating. Aggressive mimicry helps a predator organism approach its prey or lure the prey to approach the predator. [31] Batesian mimicry also occurs in the plant kingdom, such as the chameleon vine, which adapts its leaf shape and colour to match that of the plant it is climbing, such that its edible leaves appear to be the less desirable leaves of its host. being unpalatable). [12][13][14] The model is usually another species, except in automimicry, where members of the species mimic other members, or other parts of their own bodies, and in inter-sexual mimicry, where members of one sex mimic members of the other. Female signals are based on that received from the male, each female having a repertoire of signals matching the delay and duration of the female of the corresponding species. It was once believed that viceroy butterflies are unpalatable until purported. In this way, it can bridge the gap between hosts, allowing it to complete its life cycle. [86][87] Female spotted hyenas have pseudo-penises that make them look like males. Browerian mimicry,[8] named after Lincoln P. Brower and Jane Van Zandt Brower,[52][53] is a postulated form of automimicry; where the model belongs to the same species as the mimic. Cases of intraspecific brood parasitism, where a female lays in a conspecific's nest, as illustrated by the goldeneye duck (Bucephala clangula),[69] do not represent a case of mimicry. Classification is often based on function with respect to the mimic (e.g., avoiding harm). [98] In this unusual case, a fungal plant pathogen infects leaves of blueberries, causing them to secrete sugars, in effect mimicking the nectar of flowers. Such groups are known as Batesian-Mullerian spectrum, quasi-Batesian mimicry or arithmetic mimicry (Huheey 1976; Mallet and Joron 1999; Someren and Jackson 1959). An experimental test", "Contributions to an insect fauna of the Amazon valley. Mimicry abilities allow you to turn your whole entire physical body into something else. [89], Some writers use the term "automimicry" when the mimic imitates other morphs within the same species. Evidence for this possibility is provided by the behaviour of a monkey from Gabon, which regularly ate male moths of the genus Anaphe, but promptly stopped after it tasted a noxious female.[54]. Because of these constant threats, specific insects evolved in order to adapt to their environment and to avoid being eaten their predators. [45][46][47], The scenario is unusual, as it is usually the most harmful species that is the model. [34][35] This type of mimicry is unique in several respects. Mimicry is the ability of certain living beings to superficially resemble others , with whom they lack any taxonomic or evolutionary link.

A very broad category is floral mimicry or plant mimicry, which unites mimicry cases in which the mimic is a plant (Roy and Widmer 1999; Dafni 1984; Lev-Yadun 2014). [39] This example was long believed to be Batesian, with the viceroy mimicking the monarch, but the viceroy is actually the more unpalatable species.


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