Facultative myrmecophiles tend to associate with a broad range of ants, although interactions with ecologically dominant ants are less frequent than might be expected based on the abundance of dominant ant species in Australian communities. Mahdi, T., and Whittaker, J. Cottrell, C. B., Aphytophagy in butterflies: its relationship to myrmecophily. Ecol.62 (1993) 101–116. theda (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): contrasting systems of myrmecophily among two closely related butterfly species, in: Les insectes sociaux, p. 275.


ent. It could be because Lilac Silverlines rely on regurgitated food from ants, rather than tough vegetation like other caterpillar species. rev. Physiol.66 (1970) 215–250. Secretions of specialized epidermal glands are crucial for mediating the interactions. Members of the Family Lycaenidae are mainly found in the tropics. II.

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Colony foundation and acquisition of trophobionts. Monogr.31 (1991) 1–210.

Elmes, G. W., Thomas, J. For what would a butterfly depend on ants?

Fiedler, K., Systematic, evolutionary, and ecological implications of myrmecophily within the Lycaenidae (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea). Parrhasius polibetes Malicky, H., Versuch einer Analyse der ökologischen Beziehungen zwischen Lycaeniden (Lepidoptera) und Formiciden (Hymenoptera). 15 HÜBNER (NYMPHALIDAE): OVIPOSITION PREFERENCE, SURVIVAL, GROWTH, AND CHEMICAL DEFENSE, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1997.tb03669.x, The gall maker Neopelma baccharidis Burck. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. J. entomol. Zool. Harvard University, Cambridge/Massachusetts, 1983. Learn More, © 2020, The Trustees of Indiana University • Copyright Complaints, 1229 East Seventh Street, Bloomington, Indiana 47405, Support For Indiana Public Media Comes From, relationships with different species of ants. The researchers noticed a 'push and pull' mechanism between ants and caterpillars. opacithorax. (Lep., Lycaenidae). DeVries, P. J., The larval ant-organs ofThisbe irenea (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) and their effects upon attending ants. Anz. Evans, https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938600770421, Nutritional ecology of endoparasitic insects and their hosts: An overview, https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1910(86)90036-3, Is there competition between phytophagous insects?1, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0469.1985.tb00589.x, Lycaenid Butterflies and Ants: Selection for Nitrogen-Fixing and Other Protein-Rich Food Plants, The Myrmecophilous organs of the larvae of some British Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera): a comparative study, https://doi.org/10.1080/00222938500770211, The influence of ants on host plant selection by Jalmenus evagoras, a myrmecophilous lycaenid butterfly, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-030805-0.50009-2, Enemy free space and the structure of ecological communities, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.1984.tb00145.x, Aphytophagy in butterflies: its relationship to myrmecophily, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-3642.1984.tb02318.x, Myrmecophilous organs of the larvae and pupa of the lycaenid butterfly Allyn Mus.48 (1978) 1–14. DeVries, P. J., Mutualism betweenThisbe irenea butterflies and ants, and the role of ant ecology in the evolution of larval-ant associations. Insects ‘Down Under’– Diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. However, caterpillars of butterflies that belong to the family Lycaenidae, have an unlikely relationship with ants—they rely on ants for protection from predators. Nearly 80% of the lycaenid species in Australia, for which the early stages are known, are recorded associating with ants and half of these are obligately ant‐associated. nov. (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

When caterpillars attack: Biogeography and life history evolution of the Miletinae (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Maschwitz, U., Wüst, M., and Schurian, K., Bläulingsraupen als Zuckerlieferanten für Ameisen. Immature stages of Strategic national approach for improving the conservation management of insects and allied invertebrates in Australia.

Callaghan, C. J., Notes on the biology of a myrmecophilous African lycaenid,Aphnaeus adamsi Stempffer (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae). Jutzeler, D., Weibchen der BläulingsartLycaeides idas L. riechen ihre Wirtsameisen (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). ent. Lond.86 (1937) 201–238. You have reached the end of the main content. A., and Wardlaw, J. C., The effect of queen ants on the survival ofMaculinea arion larvae inMyrmica ant nests. Warrington, S., and Whittaker, J. Ent. In contrast, only nine species are found in Tasmania. Hinton, H. E., Myrmecophilous Lycaenidae and other Lepidoptera — a summary. 1999. Ges. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204019, A meta-analysis of the effects of galling insects on host plant secondary metabolites, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11829-016-9486-0, Ant-related oviposition is not associated to low parasitism of the myrmecophilous butterfly Allosmaitia strophius in an extrafloral nectaried shrub, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actao.2017.06.007, https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118945568.ch2, Ant-lepidopteran associations along African forest edges, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-016-1424-6, Classic Themes: Ants and Other Insects – Lepidoptera, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-58292-4_6, Host plant preference in the protected myrmecophilous Transylvanian Blue (Pseudophilotes bavius hungarica) butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and its relationship with potential ant partners, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-016-9907-5, Trait-mediated indirect interactions of ant shape on the attack of caterpillars and fruits, Trophic interactions in an ant nest microcosm: a combined experimental and stable isotope (δ A small number of Australian lycaenids live as parasites within ant nests where they feed on the immature brood of their host ant. Lycaenid butterflies and plants: is myrmecophily associated with particular hostplant preferences? Claassens, A. J. M., and Dickson, C. G. C., A study of the myrmecophilous behaviour of the immature stages ofAloeides thyra (L.) (Lep: Lycaenidae) with special reference to the function of the retractile tubercles and with additional notes on the general biology of the species. Soc. C/δ

Fiedler, K., and Maschwitz, U., Functional analysis of the myrmecophilous relationships between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and lycaenids (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Lycaenid larvae are relatively small compared with many caterpillars. Some caterpillars also make drumming sounds to keep their attendant ants alert. Ed. Allyn Mus.14 (1973) 1–47. Fr.97 (1993) 339–342. The majority of lycaenids have associations with ants that can be facultative or obligate and range from mutualism to parasitism. These butterflies are also called gossamer-winged butterflies because of their delicate, often iridescent wings. Dejean, A., Nkongmeneck, B., Corbara, B., and Djieto-Lordon, C., Impact des fourmis arboricoles sur une pullulation d'Achaea catocaloides (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) dans des plantations de cacaoyers du Cameroun, et étude de leurs Homoptères associés. Behavioral strategy of a lycaenid (Lepidoptera) caterpillar against aggressive ants in a Brazilian savanna. Soc.47 (1993) 8–16. IN RELATION TO MACROEVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS OF HELIOTHINE HOST RANGE, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.1990.tb05235.x, The symbiosis between the weaver ant, Soc. Furthermore, these ‘converted’ ants had the tendency to respond to particular stimuli. Fiedler, K., Lycaenid butterflies and plants: is myrmecophily associated with particular hostplant prefenreces. The Host Genera of Ant-Parasitic Lycaenidae Butterflies: A Review. In lycaenids there are usually five larval development stages (instars) before pupation.

Associations with ants include the following categories: These associations between lycaenids and ants usually benefit both partners (known as mutualism). Florivorous myrmecophilous caterpillars exploit an ant–plant mutualism and distract ants from extrafloral nectaries. Butterfly Conservation in South-Eastern Australia: Progress and Prospects. Ehrhardt, R., Über die Biologie und Histologie der myrmekophilen Organe vonLycaena orion. The foregut also had a tiny volume compared to other caterpillar species. Myrmecophily refers to mutualistic associations with ants, though in its more general use, the term may also refer to commensal or even parasitic interactions. Maschwitz, U., Fiala, B., Moog, J., and Saw, L. G., Two new myrmecophytic associations from the Malay Peninsula: ants of the genusCladomyrma (Formicidae, Camponotinae) as partners ofSaraca thaipingensis (Caesalpiniaceae) andCrypteronia griffithii (Crypteroniaceae). Samson, P. R., and O'Brien, C. F., Predation onOgyris genoveva (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) by meat ants. These dietary shifts are apparently strongly conditioned by the dependence of the butterfly's eggs, larvae, and pupae upon ant protection. Vane-Wright, R. I., Ecological and behavioural orgins of diversity in butterflies, in: The diversity of insect faunas: pp. Anthene emolus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae): uncovering Australia’s greatest taxonomic fraud. Together, these three organs, along with the pore cupola, effectively tame the ants into becoming caterpillar caregivers. Although myrmecophily in lycaenid caterpillars is well documented, researchers at the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), Bengaluru, have used a new technique to understand the mechanisms that sustain this relationship. PHYLOGEOGRAPHIC EVIDENCE FROM A MODEL MYRMECOPHILE, JALMENUS EVAGORAS, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0014-3820.2006.tb01109.x, Multitrophic interactions in a neotropical savanna: ant–hemipteran systems, associated insect herbivores and a host plant, https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511541971.018, The Effects of Ants on the Entomophagous Butterfly Caterpillar Feniseca tarquinius, and the Putative Role of Chemical Camouflage in the Feniseca–Ant Interaction, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-005-6079-2, Oviposition vs. offspring fitness in Aphidius colemani parasitizing different aphid species, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1570-7458.2005.00261.x, Ant?plant?herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-004-0585-x, Low parasitoid success on a myrmecophilous host is maintained in the absence of ants, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0307-6946.2004.00565.x, Effects of the Presence of the Allegheny Mound Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Providing Enemy-Free Space to Myrmecophilous Aphid and Soft Scale Populations, https://doi.org/10.1603/0013-8746(2003)096[0202:EOTPOT]2.0.CO;2, ON THE CONDITIONAL NATURE OF NEOTROPICAL CATERPILLAR DEFENSES AGAINST THEIR NATURAL ENEMIES, https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9658(2002)083[3108:OTCNON]2.0.CO;2, Oviposition tests of ant preference in a myrmecophilous butterfly, https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00434.x, Geographical variation in host-ant specificity of the parasitic butterfly (Lepidoptera).

X-ray microtomography, or microCT for short, produces 3D projections of an object using X-rays, similar to the CT scan used by doctors for diagnosis. Patterns of association are examined from the perspective of both lycaenids and ants, with a focus on ant systematics and ecology. They also "milk" homopterans and are fed orally by ants. Ecology75 (1994) 1031–1041. Adults are generally small butterflies, and are known as Blues, Hairstreaks, Coppers or Azures, in reference to their blue or coppery wing colours. Lycaenid larvae eat a diversity of unrelated foods, including flowering plants, fungi, lichens, cycads, ferns, conifers, homopterans, and ant larvae. J. Anim.

Learn about our remote access options, 270 Bloomfield Street, Cleveland, Queensland. The ants are like a private army of bodyguards. Instead, they guard the larvae and create a safe space for them to grow, moult and reach adulthood. Pierce, N. E., and Mead, P. S., Parasitoids as selective agents in the symbiosis between lycaenid butterfly larvae and ants. Lycaenid larvae as trophobiotic partners of ants — a quantitative approach. Revised taxonomic status of Pseudalmenus barringtonensis Waterhouse, 1928 stat. Fiedler, K., and Maschwitz, U., Functional analysis of the myrmecophilous relationships between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and lycaenids (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).


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