German pillboxes were characteristically difficult to subdue, and the Australian divisions suffered 6,500 casualties. [27][28][Note 1] These changes were incorported in a Fourth Army operation order of 30 September. [47] The 4th Brigade on the right took Duchy Farm and Riverside easily then paused to capture Otto Farm and then reached the first objective (red line) and dug in. We pay our respects to elders past and present. [64], Wet ground caused some units to lose the protection of the creeping barrage, as well as reducing the effect of shells, many landing in mud and being smothered, although this affected German artillery equally. [25] All available machine-guns including those of the support and reserve battalions of the front line regiments, were sent into the forward zone to form a cordon of four to eight guns every 250 yards (230 m).  •  • South Africa [17] The battle was almost called off when heavy rain began again on 2 October, turning parts of the ground into a morass. The 1st Brigade attack on the left, veered north beyond the Hanebeek and was fired on from Aviatik Farm and Dear House, which were taken by a trench mortar and grenade attack. More units attacked on narrower fronts and troops advanced no more than 1,500 yards (1,400 m) into the German defence zone, before consolidating their position. [49], The 11th Division attacked at 6:00 a.m. with two brigades and ten tanks of 'D' battalion, 1st tank Brigade. Gas bombardment was to be increased on forward infantry positions and artillery emplacements whenever the winds allowed.  • Zaian War (1914–1921) A resumption of the attack at 5:00 p.m. was cancelled due to rain and poor light. [26] The ground holding divisions were reinforced by the Stoss regiment of each of the Eingreif divisions (which were moved up behind each front division) into the artillery protective line, which backed on to the forward battle zone, to launch earlier counter-attacks, while the British were consolidating. Haig judged that the next attack, due on 6 October would conclude the period of strictly limited advances and that the following step would be a deeper advance, with provision made for exploitation. A counter-attack in the 11th Division area at 1:00 p.m. was defeated and reinforcements allowed the new line to be established between the Steenbeek and the Langemarck–Winnipeg road. Troops on the extreme right combined with 11th Division infantry to capture a pillbox on the Poelcappelle road. [71] Calculations of German losses by the Official Historian have been severely criticised ever since. It was not without cost, however.  • Battle of the Masurian Lakes [32] The right brigade pivoted on the southern flank amid much German small-arms fire but captured the first objective on Tower Hamlets (Bassevillebeek) spur. The battle of Broodseinde Ridge was the third operation launched by British general Herbert Plummer as part of the Ypres offensive of 1917. [50], The 29th Division was to attack astride the Ypres–Staden railway and form a defensive flank overlooking the Broembeek, with troops from two brigades.

 • Paris Peace Conference The battle was recorded as a “black day” in the official German history of war. - Cookies. Operations to inflict greater losses on British infantry under the instructions of 22 September were to continue, with more bombardment by field artillery and by using at least half of the heavy artillery's ammunition for observed fire on infantry positions in captured pill-boxes, command posts, machine-gun nests, tracks and field railways.  •  • New Zealand Plumer called the attack "the greatest victory since the Marne" and the German Official History referred to "the black day of October 4".  •  • France  • Battle of Aleppo  • Kosovo Offensive, • Battle of Verdun

In the next British attack on 9 October after several days of rain, the German defence achieved a costly defensive success, holding the approaches to Passchendaele village, which was the most tactically vital ground. Eight German counter-attacks were made, which regained Polderhoek Spur, leaving the new front line along the west of Cameron Covert and just short of Chateau Wood. To the north the left flank brigade was fired on from Cameron Covert and scattered pillboxes as it advanced.

Faster attack preparations reduced the time available for artillery to prepare assaults, which combined with the return of heavy rain after 4 October, substantially to reduce British artillery support during the battles of Poelcappelle on 9 October and First Passchendaele on 12 October. [18][19], The attack aimed to complete the capture of the Gheluvelt Plateau by the occupation of Broodseinde Ridge and the Gravenstafel spur.  • Meuse-Argonne Offensive The division had 180 18-pounders and 60 4.5-inch howitzers for its creeping barrage in front of the four deeper barrages fired by 60 machine-guns and the II Anzac Corps medium and heavy artillery.  • Battle of Baku [49], XIV Corps guarded the northern flank of the attack. Tweed House was captured and contact made with troops further north from the 11th Division. [12] When the Germans counter-attacked they encountered defence-in-depth, protected by a mass of artillery like the British green and black lines had been on 31 July and suffered many casualties to little effect.  •  • Greco-Turkish War (1919–1923)

Your generous donation will be used to ensure the memory of our Defence Forces and what they have done for us, and what they continue to do for our freedom remains – today and into the future. The 6th and 7th Brigades had to pass either side of Zonnebeke lake and saw German troops opposite them rise from shell-holes and begin to advance. [23], The artillery plan had the first belt of creeping barrage beginning 150 yards (140 m) beyond the jumping-off tapes.


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