[154] According to the CIA, enhanced interrogation "conditions" were used for security and "other valid reasons, such as to create an environment conducive to transitioning captured and resistant terrorist (sic) to detainees participating in debriefings." Washington University Law Review. The methods were clearly understood in 1948 as war-crimes. Meanwhile, an article in the Los Angeles Times reports that there was a "stark contrast" between the amount of resources the CIA expended trying to determine whether the methods were effective and trying to show that the methods were legal. Most actions that fall under the international definition do not fall within this new definition advocated by the U.S.[202][203][204]. President Barack Obama, however, condemned the CIA interrogation programme as a "dark and painful chapter" in US history and signed an executive order banning the techniques on his second day in office. [12] Some of these techniques fall under the category known as "white torture". The judges also concluded that Binyam Mohamed had been subjected to "cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment by the United States authorities" and that British Intelligence knew that Mohamed was being tortured by the CIA.[196]. [154] They insisted that some information derived from the CIA program was useful, specifically that interrogation techniques made some detainees compliant and that the "information provided by the totality of detainees in CIA custody" had led to Osama Bin Laden. Torture is defined by the UN Convention against Torture, which the US has signed, as "any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person" in order to get information. The argument surrounds issues like should it be practiced, who should be allowed to practice it, and when is it okay to practice it. [73] He asserts the first use of a term comparable to "enhanced interrogation" was a 1937 memo by Gestapo Chief Heinrich Müller coining the phrase "Verschärfte Vernehmung", German for "sharpened questioning", "intensified" or "enhanced interrogation" to describe subjection to extreme cold, sleep deprivation, suspension in stress positions, and deliberate exhaustion among other techniques. It also cites a number of warnings against torture, including statements by President Bush and a then-new Supreme Court ruling "which raises possible concerns about future US judicial review of the [interrogation] Program.". The working group based its new guidelines on a legal memo from the United States Department of Justice Office of Legal Counsel written by John Yoo and signed by Jay S. Bybee in August 2002, which would later become widely known as the "Torture Memo." Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? According to ABC News,[102] former and current CIA officials have come forward to reveal details of interrogation techniques authorized in the CIA. He claimed that the Bush Administration had ordered all copies of his legal memo be collected and destroyed.[208][209]. [84][85], Stephen Soldz, Steven Reisner and Brad Olson wrote an article describing how the techniques used mimic what was taught in the SERE-program: "the military's Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape program that trains US Special Operations Forces, aviators and others at high risk of capture on the battlefield to evade capture and to resist 'breaking' under torture, particularly through giving false confessions or collaborating with their captors". "[251], There is no statute of limitations for war crimes in international law. The court ordered the Polish government to pay each of the men 100,000 euros in damages. [65] Former senator Bob Graham (D-Fla.), chairman of the Senate intelligence committee after the 9/11 attacks, said he was not briefed on waterboarding and that in three instances agency officials said he'd attended briefings on days that his personal journal shows he was elsewhere. Journal of Physicians for Human Rights, 5(1), 1-44. [18] The CIA admits to waterboarding three people implicated in the September 11 attacks: Abu Zubaydah, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, and Mohammed al-Qahtani. "[165] The New York Times reported that according to "some insiders," an inquiry into the C.I.A. Speaking to BBC Newsnight earlier this year, Mr Rizzo said capturing and interrogating terrorists was better than killing people through drone strikes. "Nobody with expertise or experience in interrogation ever took a rigorous, systematic review of the various techniques – enhanced or otherwise – to see what resulted in the best information," a senior US intelligence official involved in overseeing the program told The Tribune.

The practices were brutal and produced little intelligence of value, a leaked White House memo said in July 2014. [190], On January 20, 2009, the United Nations special rapporteur on Torture, Professor Manfred Nowak, remarked on German television that – following the inauguration of President Barack Obama – George W. Bush no longer had head of state immunity, and that under international law, the U.S. is mandated to start criminal proceedings against all those involved in these violations of the UN Convention Against Torture. [205] They were among nearly 140,000 formerly classified documents from the Department of Defense, the Justice Department, and the CIA that provide details on the treatment of prisoners in U.S. custody in the "War on Terror" gathered by the ACLU. Short shackling is when detainees were made to stand for forty hours in handcuffs during an interview. The issues involving enhanced interrogation techniques are still alive today.

[124], It was not known publicly until 2008 that Yoo wrote another legal opinion, dated March 14, 2003, which he issued to the General Counsel of DOD, five days before the invasion of Iraq started. [242] John Yoo, the former Bush administration attorney who authored the Torture Memos, has said that CIA officers risk prosecution for acts outside what the Justice Department specifically authorized. [48], As early as November 2001, the CIA general counsel began considering the legality of torture, writing that "the Israeli example" (using physical force against hundreds of detainees) could serve as "a possible basis for arguing ... torture was necessary to prevent imminent, significant, physical harm to persons, where there is no other available means to prevent the harm. [121], In 2006, senior law enforcement agents with the Criminal Investigation Task Force told MSNBC.com that they began to complain in 2002 inside the U.S. Department of Defense that the interrogation tactics used in Guantanamo Bay by a separate team of military intelligence investigators were unproductive, not likely to produce reliable information, and probably illegal. ", "Justice Official Defends Rough CIA Interrogations", "Interrogation Memos Detail Harsh Tactics by the C.I.A. He could have made his confession as a way to take credit for everything he possibly could. It was that medical impact that pushed me over the edge [i.e., to call it torture]. In this method there are multiple interrogators that ask a serious of questions and do not allow enough time for the subject to answer. If no physical harm is being allowed or even threatened, the interviewee should not have the feeling they need protection. Did psychologists prevent CIA torture or 'enhance' it? [252], The U.S. under the Bush administration "unsigned" the treaty that had conferred on the International Criminal Court jurisdiction over Americans.

Are they effective? .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Details of harsh interrogation techniques used by the CIA on suspected terrorists have been made public by the US Senate Intelligence Committee. or call us at 1-617-450-2300. The CIA marginalized and ignored numerous internal critiques, criticisms, and objections concerning the operation and management of the CIA's Detention and Interrogation Program. The techniques were hidden in secret and are only available due to a leak from the Central Intelligence Agency. However, President Barack Obama halted the programme when he took office in 2009, and acknowledged that many of the measures amounted to torture. Belly slaps were made to be irritating and only demagogically painful. One memo said waterboarding would only be used when the CIA had "credible intelligence" that a terrorist attack was imminent and there were "credible indicators" that the subject possessed "actionable intelligence". Let’s take a look at some of them more in-depth. [263][264], On October 22, 2012, Kiriakou pleaded guilty to disclosing classified information about a fellow CIA officer that connected the covert operative to a specific operation. That year John Helgerson, the inspector general of the CIA, issued a draft of a report calling for analysis by outside investigators to research the effectiveness of water boarding and other methods to evaluate how well they worked. Enhanced Interrogation Techniques Pros and Cons, 9 Pros and Cons of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Advantages and Disadvantages of Globalization, Pros and Cons of the Treaty of Versailles. Repetition technique is simply repeating the interview questions even after being answered in hopes of boring the subject into revealing information (Schoomake, 2006).

This paper will discuss the leaked techniques approved by the Bush administration then later denied by Obama. "[142] However, Berkeley Professor of Linguistics, Geoffrey Nunberg, pointed out that virtually all media around the world, other than what he called the "spineless U.S. media", call these techniques torture.


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