Celtic Renewables makes biobutanol from waste that results from the production of whisky, and low-grade potatoes. Butanol at 85 percent strength can be used in cars designed for gasoline (petrol) without any change to the engine (unlike 85% ethanol), and it contains more energy for a given volume than ethanol and almost as much as gasoline, and a vehicle using butanol would return fuel consumption more comparable to gasoline than ethanol. Since the 1950s, most butanol in the United States is produced commercially from fossil fuels. n-butanol and isobutanol have limited solubility, sec-butanol has substantially greater solubility, while tert-butanol is miscible with water above tert-butanol's melting point.The hydroxyl group makes the molecule polar, promoting solubility in water, while the longer hydrocarbon chain mitigates the polarity and reduces solubility. The butanol isomers have different melting and boiling points. Like many alcohols, butanol is considered toxic. [4], Butanol is used as a solvent for a wide variety of chemical and textile processes, in organic synthesis, and as a chemical intermediate. [5], A 50% solution of butanol in water has been used since the 20th century to retard the drying of fresh plaster in fresco painting. 117-118 °C Alfa Aesar: 243 F (117.2222 °C) NIOSH EO1400000 117.7 °C Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 1-Butanol: 118 °C OU Chemical Safety Data (No longer updated) More details: 117-118 °C Alfa Aesar 31068, 41867, 32443, 22925, L13171: 116-118 °C Oakwood 035921: 117 °C LabNetwork LN00164428: 117.4 °C FooDB FDB012614: 242-244 F / 760 mmHg (116.6667-117.7778 …

In extreme cases this includes suppression of the central nervous system and even death. Butanol (also called butyl alcohol) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures (four structural isomers), from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol;[1] all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, i-BuOH, and t-BuOH). The branched isomer with the alcohol at a terminal carbon is isobutanol or 2-methyl-1-propanol, and the branched isomer with the alcohol at the internal carbon is tert-butanol or 2-methyl-2-propanol. Butanol can also be produced by fermentation of biomass by bacteria. The LD50 is 4400 mg/kg (rat, oral). The main dangers are from prolonged exposure to the alcohol's vapors.

n-Butanol or n-butyl alcohol or normal butanol is a primary alcohol with a 4-carbon structure and the chemical formula C4H9OH. Butanol is considered as a potential biofuel (butanol fuel). It is also used as a paint thinner and a solvent in other coating applications where a relatively slow evaporating latent solvent is preferable, as with lacquers and ambient-cured enamels. tert-butanol is derived from isobutane as a co-product of propylene oxide production. The unmodified term butanol usually refers to the straight chain isomer with the alcohol functional group at the terminal carbon, which is also known as n-butanol or 1-butanol. Like other butanols, 2-butanol has low acute toxicity. It has not been shown to damage DNA or cause cancer. At 20 ℃, its solubility in water is 7.7% (by weight) while the water solubility in 1-butanol was 20.1% (by weight). This is -127.48 degrees Fahrenheit. Under most circumstances, butanol is quickly metabolized to carbon dioxide.

NIST / TRC Web Thermo Tables, professional edition (thermophysical and thermochemical data) These are n-butanol, 2 stereoisomers of sec-butanol, isobutanol and tert-butanol. Its isomers include isobutanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol. The solution is usually sprayed on the wet plaster after the plaster has been trowelled smooth and extends the working period during which frescos can be painted up to 18 hours.

It has shown low order of toxicity in single dose experiments to laboratory animals [2][3] and is considered safe enough for use in cosmetics. It boils at 117.6 degrees Celsius, which is 243.68 degrees Fahrenheit.

It is sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically and petrobutanol when produced from petroleum; those two names refer to the same substance, but highlight their different origins.

Salts of butanol are chemical intermediates; for example, alkali metal salts of tert-butanol are tert-butoxides. Research in the past few decades showed results of other microorganisms that can produce butanol through fermentation. The hydroxyl group makes the molecule polar, promoting solubility in water, while the longer hydrocarbon chain mitigates the polarity and reduces solubility. The straight chain isomer with the alcohol at an internal carbon is sec-butanol or 2-butanol. Butanol is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. The most common process starts with propene (propylene), which is put through a hydroformylation reaction to form butanal, which is then reduced with hydrogen to 1-butanol and/or 2-butanol. It is also used as a component of hydraulic and brake fluids. [6], Butanol is used in the synthesis of 2-butoxyethanol. It has the boiling point of being 117.7 ℃, the density (20 ℃) being ​​0.8109g/cm3, the freezing point being-89.0 ℃, flash point being 36~38 ℃, self-ignition point being 689F and the refractive index being (n20D) 1.3993. Brief, repeated overexposure with the skin can result in depression of the central nervous system, as with other short-chain alcohols. n-butanol and isobutanol have limited solubility, sec-butanol has substantially greater solubility, while tert-butanol is miscible with water above tert-butanol's melting point. Auto-ignition temperature: 345°C Butanol can also be added to diesel fuel to reduce soot emissions. A major application for butanol is as a reactant with acrylic acid to produce butyl acrylate, a primary ingredient of water based acrylic paint.[7]. The butanol isomers have different melting and boiling points. Butanol melts at a very cold -88.6 degrees Celsius. Boiling point: 117°C Melting point: -90°C Relative density (water = 1): 0.81 Solubility in water, g/100ml at 20°C: 7.7 Vapour pressure, kPa at 20°C: 0.58 Relative vapour density (air = 1): 2.6 Relative density of the vapour/air-mixture at 20°C (air = 1): 1.01 Flash point: 29°C c.c. "diego's assistants | Diego Rivera Mural Project", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Butanol&oldid=982972004, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 13:52. Prior to the 1950s, Clostridium acetobutylicum was used in industrial fermentation to produce butanol. Butanol is one of the group of "fusel alcohols" (from the German for "bad liquor"), which have more than two carbon atoms and have significant solubility in water. Exposure may also cause severe eye irritation and moderate skin irritation. It is also used as a base for perfumes, but on its own has a highly alcoholic aroma.


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